Dates Information

Phoenix dactylifera is the botanical name for the date palm. It is also referred to as nakhl in Arabic, while the fruit of the date palm is called tamr in many Arab and African countries.The date palm is a tall evergreen and consists of both male and female trees (called dioecious). Only the female trees produce fruit, but one male tree can produce enough pollen to pollinate 10 female trees. The date palm, which is most commonly un branched, can grow up to 30 meters. It has 4-5 meter long leaves and surround the trunk in a spiral pattern. Branched forms of the date palm also occur.

The date palm, is a monocot plant in the Arecaceae family, cultivated in dry tropical regions worldwide for its edible sweet fruit. Its native range is difficult to ascertain, because it has been spread through cultivation for thousands of years, and no longer occurs in the wild, but it is generally considered to have briginated from Iraq and got introduced in western part of India more specifically the- coastal region of Kachchh district of Guiarat by the soldiers. of Alexander, Turk settlers_of the -region and Arab (gardeners of Maharaia's of Kachchh. Commercial cultivation of this crop in India

occprs only in Kachchh region of Guiarat having approximately 1.9 million palms mainly developed .through seed with a production of 85000 tones of fresh fruits. Being dioecious and highly crosspollinated crop, there exist great variability and diversity among the existing palms of the region.Unlike other date palm growing countries, due to early/onset of monsoon, we have to harvest the crop at colour braking of stage (Khalal) and consume as fresh fruit. We may be, the only country where date fruits consumed as fresh. Hence our priority of selecting a variety is different from rest of the region.

An early maturing, sweet ,at 'Khalal' stage, with very attractive colour (preferable bright red and golden yellow), rain tolerant, profuse off shooting behaviour with good keeping quality and high yielding are a very few favorable characters of our priority. Due to non availability of sufficient number of good planting material is a major setback in extending the area

 

Date palms produce between five and twenty bunches of dates per tree. A single large bunch may contain more than a thousand dates, and can weigh between 8 - 15 kg.

CULTIVATION DETAILS - TISSUE CULTURE DATE PALM PLANTS

 Soil Type

 Date palm is not very demanding and will grow on almost any type of soil, from almost pure sand to heavy alluvial soils, provided they furnish the basic needs of anchorage to the palm, minerals, water penetration and drainage. The optimal situation lies, therefore, in the middle and deep sandy loams are often quoted as the more suitable type of soil for the date palm.

 Spacing

 24 x 24 feet

 Population

 76 Plants/acre.

 Planting Season

 Any season if Water available.

 Pit size

 3 X 3 X 3 feet

 Time to start bearing

 2-3 years

 Time to full production

 4th Year

 Fertilizers and Manures

 Apply FYM 15-20 days before flowering in January @ 50 kg per tree. At fruit setting in Mar/Apr, apply a further 50 kg per tree.

 Pest and Diseases

 There are no major pest and diseases of date palm except Red Palm Weevil and Rhinoceros beetle which can be manageable.

 Normal economic bearing life

 100 years

 Time of flowering

 Feb

 Time of harvest

 July – Aug

 Yield

 Once in year

 Expected yield

 20-30kg per tree [First yield] 50-60kg per tree [2nd yield] above 200 kg per tree [3rd yield onwards]

 

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